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Manganese: What Goes Around Comes Around

Authors: Leeds, A. and DeFolo, K.

Journal AWWA, Volume 113, Number 3

The complex chemistry of manganese makes optimizing its removal in surface water treatment plants challenging, particularly if a facility is zero-liquid discharge or if it recycles significant portions of its process washwater. Concentrations of manganese fractions across treatment and solids-handling processes must be understood for optimal removal, and  efforts to optimize treatment for a specific contaminant such as manganese must account for any effects on other unit processes.

Read the full study in Journal AWWA.



Leeds, A. and DeFolo, K. “Manganese: What Goes Around Comes Around.” Journal AWWA. 113(3):20-30. April 2021.