The city of Pearland, Texas, is planning to construct a 10 million gal per day (mgd) membrane-based surface water treatment plant (SWP). The source water for this SWP is the American Canal, which is fed by the Brazos River and natural drainage from the Oyster Creek watershed. This source water is challenging to treat due to the high variability in quality. The raw water turbidity can range from less than 10 NTU to greater than 300 NTU and the total organic carbon (TOC) can range from approximately 3 mg/L up to greater than 7 mg/L. The city, Carollo Engineers Inc. and CDM Smith conducted a nine month pilot study of the proposed treatment train to develop process design criteria based on a representative range of water quality.